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Domestic horses Equus ferus caballus fail to intuitively reason about object properties like solidity and weight. Animal Cognition, 21 3 , Give me your dung and I will tell you who you are. Gorilla Journal, 57 , American Journal of Primatology, 80 8 : e Hans, J. MHC genes in gorillas. Immunogenetics, 70 5 , Hedwig, D. African Journal of Ecology, 56 4 , Hernandez-Rodriguez, J.

Primatology: Theories, Methods and Research

The impact of endogenous content, replicates and pooling on genome capture from faecal samples. Molecular Ecology Resources, 18 2 , Re-emergence of the leaf clip gesture during an alpha takeover affects variation in male chimpanzee loud calls. PeerJ, 6 : e Key, F. Human local adaptation of the TRPM8 cold receptor along a latitudinal cline. PLoS Genetics, 14 5 : e Knauf, S. Chuma, I. Nonhuman primates across sub-Saharan Africa are infected with the yaws bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. Effects of between-group competition on fitness in wild chimpanzees.

Susan M. Cachel

In GFP Programme pp. Selective potential of between-group competition in wild chimpanzees. The use of neopterin as a noninvasive marker in monitoring diseases in wild chimpanzees. EcoHealth, 15 4 , Costly culture: Differences in nut-cracking efficiency between wild chimpanzee groups. Environmental uncertainty and self-monitoring in the commons: A common-pool resource experiment framed around bushmeat hunting in the Republic of Congo.

Ecological Economics, , McCarthy, M. Genetic analysis suggests dispersal among chimpanzees in a fragmented forest landscape in Uganda. American Journal of Primatology, 80 9 : e An assessment of the efficacy of camera traps for studying demographic composition and variation in chimpanzees Pan troglodytes. McElreath, M.

Complex dynamics from simple cognition: The primary ratchet effect in animal culture. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 12 3 , Meijaard, E. Orangutan populations are certainly not increasing in the wild. Current Biology, 28 21 , RR Social and cognitive complexity in sooty mangabeys and Western chimpanzees. Flexible decision-making in grooming partner choice in sooty mangabeys and chimpanzees.

Royal Society Open Science, 5 7 : Minkner, M. Assessment of male reproductive skew via highly polymorphic STR markers in wild vervet monkeys, Chlorocebus pygerythrus. Journal of Heredity, 7 , Morgan, D. African apes coexisting with logging: Comparing chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes and gorilla Gorilla gorilla gorilla resource needs and responses to forestry activities. Biological Conservation, , The sex that binds: Genito-genital rubbing is associated with increases in urinary oxytocin among wild female bonobos.

Muller, M. Male mating competition and sexual dimorphism in the duration of effective breeding in wild chimpanzees. Ndiaye, P. Survey of chimpanzees Pan troglodytes verus outside protected areas in Southeastern Senegal. African Journal of Wildlife Research, 48 1 : Neufuss, J.

Gait characteristics of vertical climbing in mountain gorillas and chimpanzees. Journal of Zoology, 2 , Nurmi, N. The "tolerant chimpanzee" —towards the costs and benefits of sociality in female bonobos. Behavioral Ecology, 29 6 , Oelze, V. Meat eating frequencies in wild chimpanzees - The effect of absolute meat amounts, hunt participation and female reproductive state on the delta N ratios of hair. Capturing 3-D locomotor kinematics in wild mountain gorillas Gorilla beringei beringei. Patrono, L. Pereira, J. Folia Primatologica, 89 , Petrovan, S. Evidence-based synopsis of interventions, a new tool in primate conservation and research.

International Journal of Primatology, 39 1 , Taking turns: Bridging the gap between human and animal communication. The evolution of tolerance in non-human primates and humans. Urinary oxytocin levels in relation to post-conflict affiliations in wild male chimpanzees Pan troglodytes verus.

Prieur, J. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 23 5 , Do mechanical effectiveness and recipient species influence intentional signal laterality in captive chimpanzees Pan troglodytes? International Journal of Primatology, 39 4 , Behavioural Processes, , Proffitt, T.

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Revisiting Panda , the first archaeological chimpanzee nut-cracking site. Gorilla Journal, 56 , Variation in the social organization of gorillas: Life history and socioecological perspectives. Evolutionary Anthropology, 27 5 , Rosenbaum, S. Caring for infants is associated with increased reproductive success for male mountain gorillas. Which male and female characteristics influence the probability of extragroup paternities in rhesus macaques? Underlying mechanisms of cooperation in wild chimpanzees. Reward of labor coordination and hunting success in wild chimpanzees.

Communications Biology, 1 : Social bonds facilitate cooperative resource sharing in wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B, : Schamberg, I. Call type signals caller goal: A new take on ultimate and proximate influences in vocal production. Biological Reviews, 93 4 , Scheiber, I.

Stress behaviour and physiology of developing Arctic barnacle goslings Branta leucopsis is affected by legacy trace contaminants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, : Seiler, N. Socioecological influences on spatial and temporal patterns of space use behavior in Bwindi mountain gorillas.

Social and ecological correlates of space use patterns in Bwindi mountain gorillas. American Journal of Primatology, 80 4 : e Silk, J. To grunt or not to grunt: Factors governing call production in female olive baboons, Papio anubis. PLoS One, 13 11 : e Do chimpanzees anticipate an object's weight? A field experiment on the kinematics of hammer-lifting movements in the nut-cracking Tai chimpanzees. Animal Cognition, 21 1 , Sonnweber, R.

Circadian rhythms of urinary cortisol levels vary between individuals in wild male chimpanzees: A reaction norm approach.

Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 6 : Strindberg, S. Guns, germs, and trees determine density and distribution of gorillas and chimpanzees in Western Equatorial Africa. Science Advances, 4 4 : eaar Tagg, N. Nocturnal activity in wild chimpanzees Pan troglodytes : Evidence for flexible sleeping patterns and insights into human evolution.

Tan, A. Shellfish exploitation, resource depletion, and technological change, in a monkey model system. Thompson, N. Preliminary 3-D kinematic data of wild mountain gorilla terrestrial locomotion: Using lab-based methods in ape environments. Unexpected terrestrial hand posture diversity in wild mountain gorillas. Food mechanical properties and isotopic signatures in forest versus savannah dwelling eastern chimpanzees. Communications Biology, 1 1 : Vimal, R. Monitoring in tropical national parks: The power of knowledge.

What does community participation in nature protection mean? The case of tropical national parks in Africa. Environmental Conservation, 45 4 , Voigt, M. Global demand for natural resources eliminated more than , Bornean orangutans. Current Biology, 28 5 : e5, pp.

A non-invasive method for sampling the body odour of mammals. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 9 2 , Challenging the notion of chimpanzees as a strictly forest-adapted species: Biomarker variation of chimpanzees on the edge. Seasonal variation in physiology challenges the notion of chimpanzees Pan troglodytes verus as a forest-adapted species. The costs of living at the edge: Seasonal stress in wild savanna-dwelling chimpanzees. Ancient mitochondrial genomes reveal the demographic history and phylogeography of the extinct, enigmatic thylacine Thylacinus cynocephalus.

Journal of Biogeography, 45 1 , Long-term genetic consequences of mammal reintroductions into an Australian conservation reserve. High-quality fossil dates support a synchronous, Late Holocene extinction of devils and thylacines in mainland Australia. Biology Letters, 14 1 : Tai Chimpanzees. Shackelford Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Chimpanzees: Investigating cognition in the wild.


In Field and laboratory methods in animal cognition pp. Wolf, T. Age and socially related changes in fecal androgen metabolite concentrations in free-ranging male giraffes. Wu, D. Malaria Journal, 17 : Ackermann, C. Variation in strength of juvenile-mother bonds and oxytocin in wild juvenile chimpanzees. Folia primatologica, 88 2 , Aebischer, T. First quantitative survey delineates the distribution of chimpanzees in the Eastern Central African Republic. Biological Conservation, Part A , Understanding of object properties by sloth bears, Melursus ursinus ursinus. Meerkats Suricata suricatta fail to prosocially donate food in an experimental set-up.

Animal Cognition, 20 6 , Beaune, D. How bonobo communities deal with fruits containing high tannin content: Re-ingestion and other feeding processes. Non-invasive monitoring of physiological markers in primates. Hormones and Behavior, 91 , Validation of a method for the assessment of urinary neopterin levels to monitor health status in non-human-primate species. Frontiers in Physiology, 8 : Boehlke, C. Does diet influence salivary enzyme activities in elephant species? Technical intelligence and culture: Nut cracking in humans and chimpanzees.

American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2 , Chimpanzees routinely fish for algae with tools during the dry season in Bakoun, Guinea. American Journal of Primatology, 79 3 : e Boesch, L. Wild mammals as economic goods and implications for their conservation. Ecology and Society, 22 4 : Bondjengo, N. African Primates, 12 , Brust, C. Towards automated visual monitoring of individual gorillas in the wild. The role of oxytocin in social buffering: What do primate studies add? Grinevich Eds.

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Berlin: Springer. Vocalizing in chimpanzees is influenced by social-cognitive processes. Science Advances, 3 11 : e Crunchant, A. Automated face detection for occurrence and occupancy estimation in chimpanzees. Danel, D. Men with a terminal illness relax their criteria for facial attractiveness. American Journal of Men's Health, 11 4 , Collecting biologically relevant information: DNA to population density. APA handbook of comparative psychology Vol 1: Basic concepts, methods, neural substrate, and behavior, An empirical evaluation of camera trapping and spatially explicit capture-recapture models for estimating chimpanzee density.

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American Journal of Primatology, 79 7 : e Do wild chimpanzee populations develop diverse cultures? Donati, G. Low levels of fruit nitrogen as drivers for the evolution of Madagascar's primate communities. Scientific Reports, 7 : Douglas, P. Reproductive endocrinology and mating behaviour of wild female bonobos at Luikotale, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Duboscq, J. Degrees of freedom in social bonds of crested macaque females. Engelhardt, A. Highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for the assessment of male reproductive skew and genetic variation in critically endangered crested macaques Macaca nigra. International Journal of Primatology, 38 4 , Chimpanzees hunting for honey are cleverer than we thought.

Tool-use technique for the extraction of underground honey by central African chimpanzees in Loango National Park, Gabon. Exploitation of underground bee nests by three sympatric consumers in Loango National Park, Gabon. Biotropica, 79 1 , Extraction of honey from underground bee nests by central African chimpanzees Pan troglodytes troglodytes in Loango National Park, Gabon: Techniques and individual differences.

American Journal of Primatology, 79 8 : e Fedurek, P. Trade-offs in the production of animal vocal sequences: Insights from the structure of wild chimpanzee pant hoots. Frontiers in Zoology, 14 : Froehlich, M. Developmental effects on gestural employment of chimpanzees in the wild. Gestural development of chimpanzees in the wild: The impact of interactional experience. Democracy and cooperation in commons management: Experimental evidence of representative and direct democracy from community forests in Ethiopia.

Environment and Development Economics, 22 2 , Ebola virus disease. Fuentes Ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. Granjon, A. Evaluating genetic capture-recapture using a chimpanzee population of known size. Journal of Wildlife Management, 81 2 , Gratton, P. Which latitudinal gradients for genetic diversity?

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A world of sequences: Can we use georeferenced nucleotide databases for a robust automated phylogeography? Journal of Biogeography, 44 , Phonetische und korpus-linguistische Methoden bei der Analyse vokaler Kommunikation von freilebenden Schimpansen im Tai National Forest. Trouvain Ed. Dresden: TUD Press. Ham, S. Female songs of the nonduetting Javan Gibbons Hylobates moloch function for territorial defense. International Journal of Primatology, 38 3 , Gorilla MHC class I gene and sequence variation in a comparative context.

Immunogenetics, 69 5 , Haslam, M. Primate archaeology evolves. Hobaiter, C. Variation in hunting behaviour in neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Budongo forest, Uganda. Hoffmann, C. Persistent anthrax as a major driver of wildlife mortality in a tropical rainforest. Nature, , Bonobo Pan Paniscus. Holden, E. The structure and function of female chimpanzee pant-hoots. Distance sampling with camera traps. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 8 11 , Jaeggi, A.

Reciprocity can explain grooming, but not other forms of cooperation, among female bonobos at LuiKotale, DRC. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, S64 , Evidence for Human Streptococcus pneumoniae in wild and captive chimpanzees: A potential threat to wild populations.

American Journal of Primatology, 79 9 : e Langergraber, K. Group augmentation explains territorial boundary patrolling by male chimpanzees at Ngogo. Group augmentation, collective action, and territorial boundary patrols by male chimpanzees. Lapuente, J. American Journal of Primatology, 79 5 : e Leeds, A. Evaluating the effect of a year-long film focused environmental education program on Ugandan student knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes. Resource depletion through primate stone technology. Madinda, N. Evolution of polyomaviruses in hominines.

MHC class I diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Immunogenetics, 69 10 , African Journal of Ecology, 55 2 , Marcillo, A. Comparison of two common adsorption materials for thermal desorption gas chromatography — mass spectrometry of biogenic volatile organic compounds. Journal of Chromatography A, , Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes flexibly use introduced species for nesting and bark feeding in a human-dominated habitat.

International Journal of Primatology, 38 2 , Bystander effects on grooming interactions in Western Chimpanzees and Sooty Mangabeys. Bystanders intervene to impede grooming in Western chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys. Royal Society Open Science, 4 : Stable and fluctuating social preferences and implications for cooperation among female bonobos at LuiKotale, DRC.

Mossoun, A. Bushmeat hunting and zoonotic transmission of Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1 in tropical West and Central Africa. Journal of Virology, 91 10 : e From nonparametric tests to mixed models: A brief overview of statistical tools frequently used in comparative psychology. Call, G. Burghardt, I. Pepperberg, C. Zentall Eds. US: American Psychological Association. Neil, E. A record of the Marabou Stork Leptoptilos cruineniferus in Gabon. Malimbus, 39 1 , Comparison of hand use and forelimb posture during vertical climbing in mountain gorillas Gorilla beringei beringei and chimpanzees Pan troglodytes.

Comparison of hand use and forelimb mechanics of vertical climbing in wild mountain gorillas and free-ranging chimpanzees.

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Great ape isotope ecology - moving beyond general patterns. The socio-economic drivers of bushmeat consumption during the West African Ebola crisis. Brain and Language, , Pruetz, J. Intragroup lethal aggression in West African chimpanzees Pan troglodytes verus : Inferred killing of a former alpha male at Fongoli, Senegal. International Journal of Primatology, 38 1 , Ravignani, A. Chimpanzees process structural isomorphisms across sensory modalities. Cognition, , Long-term analysis on the variance of extra-group paternities in rhesus macaques. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 71 4 : Neuroendocrine mechanisms of hunting and food sharing in wild chimpanzees.

Oxytocin reactivity during intergroup conflict in wild chimpanzees. Santika, T. First integrative trend analysis for a great ape species in Borneo. Scientific Reports, 7 1 : Social and ecological correlates of male capuchin endocrinology. Social and demographic correlates of male androgen levels in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus.

Bonobos use call combinations to facilitate inter-party travel recruitment. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 71 : Scheffrahn, R. White-gutted soldiers: Simplification of the digestive tube for a non-particulate diet in higher Old World termites Isoptera: Termitidae. Insectes Sociaux, 64 4 , Diel pattern of corticosterone metabolites in Arctic barnacle goslings Branta leucopsis under continuous natural light. PLoS One, 12 8 : e The importance of the altricial — precocial spectrum for social complexity in mammals and birds — a review.

Frontiers in Zoology, 14 : 3. Dietary abrasiveness and chewing efficiency in chimpanzees. Space partitioning in wild, non-territorial mountain gorillas: The impact of food and neighbours. Royal Society Open Science, 4 11 , Nut-cracking and physical cognition in wild chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys : A field approach. Affiliations, aggressions and an adoption: Male-male relationships in wild binobos. Yamamoto Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Comparison of male conflict behavior in chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and bonobos Pan paniscus , with specific regard to coalition and post-conflict behavior.

American Journal of Primatology, 79 6 : e Lonoa: The establishment of a permanent field site for behavioural research on bonobos in the Kokolopori Bonobo Reserve. Pan Africa News, 24 2 , Sex-specific association patterns in bonobos and chimpanzees reflect species differences in cooperation.

Male reproductive skew is higher in bonobos than chimpanzees. Current Biology, 27 13 , RR Biomechanics of knuckle-walking in African apes. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 57 Suppl. Valente, D. Sex and age influences on singing coordination and rhythmic abilities of the indris Indri indri.

Van Leeuwen, E. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences, while opening to new research areas in mathematics and philosophy. Chemistry the etymology of the word has been much disputed [note 3] is the science of matter and the changes it undergoes. The science of matter is also addressed by physics , but while physics takes a more general and fundamental approach, chemistry is more specialized, being concerned by the composition, behavior or reaction , structure, and properties of matter , as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions.

Many more specialized disciplines have emerged in recent years, e. Earth science also known as geoscience , the geosciences or the Earth sciences is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth.

Typically Earth scientists will use tools from physics , chemistry , biology , geography , chronology and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth system works, and how it evolved to its current state. Topics of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount biomass , number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems. Oceanography, or marine biology, is the branch of Earth science that studies ocean.

It covers a wide range of topics, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents , waves , and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within it: biology , chemistry , geology , meteorology , and physics as well as geography. Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere.

Studies in the field stretch back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 17th century. The 19th century saw breakthroughs occur after observing networks developed across several countries. After the development of the computer in the latter half of the 20th century, breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. Space science or Astronomy is the study of everything in outer space. The science of living things comprises the branches of science [27] that involve the scientific study of living organisms, like plants, animals, and human beings. However, the study of behavior of organisms, such as practiced in ethology and psychology, is only included in as much as it involves a clearly biological aspect.

While biology remains the centerpiece of the science of living things, technological advances in molecular biology and biotechnology have led to a burgeoning of specializations and new, often interdisciplinary, fields. Biology is the branch of natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms , including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.

Some branches of zoology include: anthrozoology , arachnology , archaeozoology , cetology , embryology , entomology , helminthology , herpetology , histology , ichthyology , malacology , mammalogy , morphology , nematology , ornithology , palaeozoology , pathology , primatology , protozoology , taxonomy , and zoogeography. Human biology is an interdisciplinary academic field of biology, biological anthropology, nutrition and medicine which focuses on humans; it is closely related to primate biology, and a number of other fields.

Botany, plant science, or plant biology is a branch of biology that involves the scientific study of plant life. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines including structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, chemical properties, and evolutionary relationships among taxonomic groups. Botany began with early human efforts to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest sciences.

Today botanists study over , species of living organisms. The social sciences are the fields of scholarship that study society. These include: anthropology , archaeology , criminology , economics , linguistics , international relations , political science aka government , public health , sociology , some branches of psychology results of which can not be replicated or validated easily - e. Applied science is the application of scientific knowledge transferred into a physical environment.

Examples include testing a theoretical model through the use of formal science or solving a practical problem through the use of natural science. Applied science differs from fundamental science , which seeks to describe the most basic objects and forces, having less emphasis on practical applications. Applied science can be like biological science and physical science. Fields of engineering are closely related to applied sciences.

Applied science is important for technology development. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For broader coverage of this topic, see Academic discipline. History Literature Method Philosophy. Education Funding Pseudoscience Policy Sociology. Main articles: Formal sciences and Outline of formal science. Main article: Decision theory. Main articles: Logic and Outline of logic. Main articles: Mathematics and Outline of mathematics.

Main articles: Statistics and Outline of statistics. Main article: Systems theory. Main article: Theoretical computer science. Main articles: Natural science and Outline of natural science. Main articles: Physical science and Outline of physical science. Doi: REV Review of Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia. Kay, and M. Bargo, eds. Review of Homo erectus. Gilbert and B. Asfaw, eds.

Fleagle and C. Gilbert, eds. Delisle, Pearson Prentice Hall American Journal of Human Biology Rutgers Today. Academic Calendar. Calendar of Events. Division of Life Sciences. Department of Anthropology. Undergraduate Why Anthropology? Faculty Susan M. Burial law impedes scientific discovery. Science Crisfield Selected Book Chapters: a. Harris Selected Book Reviews: People Search. Connect with Rutgers.